BJ, a 65 yo woman with known non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic to her mediastinum,
contralateral lung, and supraclavicular lymph nodes, returns to your clinic for follow-up for her
cancer-related pain. She is getting chemotherapy, and has always expressed a desire for ‘the
most aggressive’ treatments available for her cancer.
She complains of 2 weeks of worsening, midline low back pain. She has noticed difficulty in
rising from chairs/toilet, and needed a wheelchair to make it into the clinic area today from the
parking garage due to weakness. Examination is notable for an unremarkable back/spine exam,
and 4/5 strength bilaterally in her lower extremities both proximally and distally.
You obtain a stat MRI which shows a T12 vertebral metastasis and cord compression.
In addition to administering glucocorticoids, then next best step is to:
a) Arrange an urgent radiation oncology consultation for the next day
b) Admit her to the hospital, and arrange a stat radiation oncology consultation
c) Admit her to the hospital, and arrange a stat spine surgery consultation
d) Adjust her pain medications appropriately, and instruct her to contact you immediately
if her pain or disability worsens
Correct answer is (c)
This is a medical emergency.
Vertebral metastases, putting a patient at risk for cord compression, should be
considered in any patient with new back pain and cancer. New or otherwise suspicious
back-pain can be evaluated urgently with a non-contrast MRI of the entire spine.
If patients have neurologic symptoms of LE weakness and/or bladder, bowel
dysfunction, it is a medical emergency and patients needs stat imaging, steroids, and
intervention. Neurologic deficits, once present, can rapidly progress to permanent
paraplegia within 24h.
The role of steroids + XRT vs steroids + surgery is unclear. A recent trial indicated
better outcomes with immediate surgery, especially for patients who came in with
severe weakness. 84% of patients vs 54% were ambulatory after treatment course with
surgery vs radiation without surgery. Actual practice has not necessarily caught up
with this, and will depend on local, institutional resources.
(For email readers – click here for the answer and discussion)